Deer #1 was rephotographed on 4-16-2014. Only a side view was taken on 4-15-2014. Deer has
an underbite, and the teeth have grooves worn in them, because of this abnormality. The teeth
would not have been contacting the dental pad at a near 90* angle, making in hard to efficiently
"clip" select pieces of feed. This leads to twigs being pulled across the top of the teeth, wearing
them. This birth defect is indicictive of Manganese deficiency and Congentital Fetal
Hypothyroidism (CFH). CFH is caused by both Manganese deficiency and thyroid hormone
disrupting toxins. Underbite has been observed in large numbers of ungulates in the Bitterroot
valley of Montana, and recently confirmed in large numbers of mule deer and other wild ruminants
around Lander Wyoming.
Appears to be normal. Was found in a spot frequented by deer and moose, in a bend in the road.
Probably for the salt and magnesium chloride, as evidenced by the visible build up of mineral
salts on the shoulder.  Several piles of moose pellets were present, as well as deer tracks. Our
Moose are in serious decline, and have mineral deficiencies.
Road killed deer were surveyed along highway 39 on 4-16-2014. Additional road kills were
surveyed along highway 89 from Ogden to Collinston, along with Blacksmith fork canyon, and Ant
valley road(route 1160), on 4-17-2014. Deer were surveyed for visible abnormalities. ~30 deer in
total were observed. Only deer along highway 39 exhibited abnormalities, bur many deer, in all
areas, were too far decomposed for some observations to be made. Click on images for larger
This deer appears to be normal. Incisors are not wider than dental pad, are more perpendicular
to the lower jaw, and do not extent beyond the premaxillary bone.
Deer #4 is a buck, his bite appears normal, but he could have a mild  overbite. He only has 1
descended testicle. The left half of the scrotum is atrophied, and the left testicle is ectopic, just under
the body wall, undescended into the scrotum. This did not occur post mortem, as evidenced by the
atrophied left hemiscrotum. This deer was also found at a road side lick, with several piles of moose
pellets present. While not typical of congenital fetal hypothyroidism, varying degrees of cryptorchidism
(one or both testes remaining near the kidneys) caused by exposure to toxins that disrupt sex
hormone function during fetal development. The more common reproductive birth defect is the
testes are ectopic (between the body wall and the skin). Both types of reproductive malformations
seem to be sympatric in some deer herds with symptoms of CFH. Short or underdeveloped male
genitalia on the external skin, with ectopic testes is a definitive symptom of Zinc deficiency not
hormone disruption.
Young fawn, with severe signs of congenital hypothyroidism.  Under bite, and wide, "angled"  incisors.  
Map with locations of highway 39 deer.
This deer, that we will call deer #6, was photographed on 5-19-2014. He has misaligned testes, with
the left testes descended in front of the right. This causes the two halves of the scrotum to be parallel to
the spine versus the normal perpendicular to the spine side by side position. These malformations
have been observed through out the West, and are indicative of epigenetic expression due to hormone
disruption during gestation, specifically masculinization.
Deer #7 has what appears to be a normal bite. His penis sheath is only 3.5cm long roughly half what
it should be. He has small testes and an underdeveloped scrotum. His left teste is descended partly
above, and in front of the right teste. This creates a misalignment of about 45 degrees. Because the
scrotum is short and under developed, the testes are held close to the body wall of this deer.  This
would impair cooling, and affect sperm viability. 5-27-2014